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Metformin Essay Example

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Pharmaceutical medications are required to treat different illnesses and improve patient outcomes. This article examines Metformin, a frequently used diabetic medicine. To further comprehend its chemistry, we will look at its IUPAC chemical names, discoveries, active component descriptions, functional groups, chemical uses, mechanism of action, routes of administration, potential side effects, and a clarifying question.

Chemical names and formulas from IUPAC

"1, 1-Dimethylbiguanide" is Metformin's IUPAC chemical name. Emile Werner and James Bell published the first scientific description of Metformin in 1922. In the 1950s, French physician Jean Stern started examining human beings. It was initially made accessible as a medication in 1957 France and the United States. The glucose-lowering activity of a chemical produced from the French lilac (Galega officinalis) was identified by French physician Jean Stern (Waller et al., 2021).

Descriptions composites and functional groupings

Metformin is a naturally occurring medication that appears as little white crystals. It has the chemical formula C4H11N5 and two amino guanidine groups (-NH-C (=NH)-NH2). These functional groups interact with cellular glucose metabolism targets, which contributes to their pharmacological efficacy (Waller et al., 2021).

Applications in medicine

Metformin is a type 2 diabetic medication that also treats gestational diabetes. It is also used to prevent type 2 diabetes in those who are at high risk. Type 2 diabetes is a disease in which the body either does not create enough insulin or produces inefficient insulin (Waller et al., 2021).

Mechanism of Action

The mechanism of action of Metformin involves AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) activation in liver and muscle cells. AMPK activation decreases hepatic gluconeogenesis, increases glucose uptake into skeletal muscle, and improves fatty acid oxidation. These collective actions lead to a decrease in blood glucose levels (Waller et al., 2021).

Administration Routes

Metformin is usually administered orally as a patch or long-term treatment. It is absorbed from the stomach and reaches peak plasma concentrations within 2-3 hours after ingestion (Waller et al., 2021).

Potential Adverse Effects

Metformin Side effects with gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramping in rare cases; Metformin use may be associated with life-threatening lactic acidosis. However, the incidence of lactic acidosis is very low, especially when the drug is used appropriately in patients without contraindications (Waller et al., 2021).

Clarifying Question

A clarifying issue emerges to acquire a better knowledge of Metformin's pharmacological profile: Does Metformin have any possible medication interactions that patients and healthcare professionals should be aware of?


The widely used anti-diabetic medicine Metformin has transformed the management of type 2 diabetes. Its therapy will be more precise if you know its chemical makeup, mode of action, routes of administration, and possible adverse effects. The clarifying query highlights the significance of taking into account possible medication interactions to deliver the best patient care and safety level.


  • Waller, D. G., Sampson, A., & Hitchings, A. (2021). Medical Pharmacology and Therapeutics E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.
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